By Margaret Coulthard
The crucial trouble of this e-book is the research of verbal interplay or discourse. this primary six chapters file and assessment significant theoretical advances within the description of discourse. the ultimate chapters reveal how the findings of discourse research can be utilized to enquire second-language instructing and first-language acquisition and to examine literary texts.
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Additional info for An Introduction to Discourse Analysis
The hearer or analyst doesn't have to decide which of more than 1000 performative verbs is the correct expansion, but only to which class the utterance belongs; all the other information will either be available jn the context or co-text or situationally unimportant - thus there is now a principled explanation for the synonymy in Austin's expansion 'I declare, pronounce, give or call you out'. Searle argues that there are three major ways in which speech acts can vary: 1. They can differ in the way in which they fit words to the world - he notes that some 'illocutions have as part of their illocutionary point to get the words (or more strictly their propositional content) to match the world, others to get the world to match the words.
Are like directives concerned with altering the world to match the words, but this time the point is to commit the speaker himself to acting and it necessarily involves INTENTION. The fourth class, expressives, is much less well defined - there is no dynamic relationship between words and world and no primitive psychological verb. Instead 'the illocutionary point of this class is to express the psychological state specified in the sincerity condition Speech acts and conversational maxims 25 about a state of affairs specified in the propositional content'.
Drawing on Ervin-Tripp (1972) Hymes suggests that the concept of syntagmatic relations can be generalized to handle the co-occurrence of items over larger stretches and this will allow one to 'characterize whatever features go together to identify a style of speech in terms of the rules of co-occurrence among them'. The concept of paradigmatic choice can be similarly generalized to one of alternation to cope with the choice between styles. The concept of style may seem very close to that of register but there is a crucial difference: registers are mainly defined and recognized by topic and context-specific lexis - the register of sermons is the language used in giving sermons; styles, however, as the rules of alternation emphasize, are not mechanically connected to particular situations - speakers may choose among styles and their choices have social meaning.
An Introduction to Discourse Analysis by Margaret Coulthard