By Noel Burton-Roberts
This hugely profitable textual content has lengthy been thought of the normal creation to the sensible research of English sentence constitution. It covers key innovations reminiscent of constituency, class and capabilities, and in addition utilises tree diagrams all through to aid the reader visualise the constitution of sentences.
In this fourth version, Analysing Sentences has been completely revised and now contains a fresh better half web site with extra actions and routines for college kids and a solution ebook for the in-text workouts for professors. the additional actions at the web site supply scholars perform in deciding on syntactic phenomena in working textual content and should support to deepen realizing of this subject.
Accessible and transparent, this booklet is the proper textbook for readers coming to this subject for the 1st time. that includes many in-text, end-of-chapter and extra routines, it's compatible for self-directed examine in addition to to be used as middle examining on classes.
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Extra resources for Analysing sentences: an introduction to English syntax
So I’ll generalise the discussion a little. Dependency and function In discussing the functions of constituents, we need some terminology to describe relationships between them. When two constituent nodes are immediately dominated by the same single node, as is the case with B and C in , A  B C they are said to be sisters. As you might guess, since B and C are sisters in , they are the daughters of A, the node that immediately dominates them. And A is the mother of B and C. Fanciful perhaps – but easily remembered!
These yield good phrases: beside it, beside something, and beside one. Notice, too, that if we were to change singular stream to plural streams, we would get the ungrammatical word-sequence *beside a streams – unless we also omit a (to give beside streams). This strongly suggests that a belongs definitely with stream rather than with beside. Here, again, we are using the single word streams to replace the sequence a stream. The question test, too, confirms that a stream is a phrase:  Question: [a] Old Sam sunbathed beside what?
Sister constituents are represented at the same level of structure in phrase markers. Constituents always have their functions in respect of their sister constituents. Thus, in each of the sentences considered so far, the subject NP and the predicate VP are sisters 31 CHAPTER 2 SENTENCE STRUCTURE: FUNCTIONS and as such are represented at the same level of structure. g. g. are paddling away). And the VP has its predicate function in respect of the subject NP. Notice that subject and predicate are dependent on each other (mutually dependent).
Analysing sentences: an introduction to English syntax by Noel Burton-Roberts