By Professor Dr. Costas Tsatsoulis, Dr. Ronald Kwok (auth.)
This ebook experiences contemporary advances within the use of SAR imagery for operational functions and for assisting technology investigations of the polar oceans. the real parameters which might be extracted from spaceborne SAR imagery are mentioned. Algorithms utilized in such analyses are defined and information platforms utilized in generating the ocean ice items are provided.
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Extra info for Analysis of SAR Data of the Polar Oceans: Recent Advances
1978). This period is considered to end when a significant fraction of the young ice has grown to first-year ice thickness (>30 cm). 2 Energy Balance The climatic character in the high latitudes is driven by the annual cycle of solar radiation. The spring period marks the transition from polar night to polar day. The seasonal increase in irradiance instigates a reversal in surface net radiation, ablation of snow and ice and a northward shift in the major North American cyclonic trajectories, with accompanying increases in cloud cover, precipitation and advection of southern air masses.
These multi-crystal forms can also form aggregates of several hundred crystals, often called polycrystalline aggregates. With drainage of the snow pack a gradient of water volume is set up within the snow with minimum values at the surface and saturation at the base. The ice surface undergoes melting, often in a cyclical diurnal fashion. The development of drainage networks begins primarily through seal holes, cracks and leads. The salinity of first-year ice decreases. The ice cover decomposes completely in some areas.
The discrepancy between the available energy at the surface, and the available energy to the snow-ice-ocean volume widens as the season progresses because of the increasing transmissivity of the snow volume. The radiation balance at the ice surface (Q\,) remains positive throughout the transition period, owing to the daily contribution of solar radiation received by the ice surface. The partitioning of net radiation at the surface may be described using the energy balance equation for snow-covered sea ice where Q* 55 is the net radiative flux at the snow surface, QH and QE are the surface turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes, and LlQs is the change in energy storage within the snow.
Analysis of SAR Data of the Polar Oceans: Recent Advances by Professor Dr. Costas Tsatsoulis, Dr. Ronald Kwok (auth.)