By Jaakko Hintikka
I n order to understand accurately what we're doing during this booklet it is crucial to gain that our method of linguistic theorizing differs from the present perspectives. Our technique may be defined through indicating what distinguishes it from the methodological rules present in theoretical linguistics, which I examine heavily erroneous. Linguists ordinarily construe their job today as that of creating exceptionless generalizations from specific examples. This explanatory process is incorrect in different alternative ways. It presupposes that we will be able to have "intuitions" approximately specific examples, frequently examples invented through the linguist himself or herself, trustworthy and sharp adequate to function a foundation of sharp generalizations. It additionally presupposes that we can't have both trustworthy direct entry to normal linguistic regularities. either assumptions seem to me tremendous doubtful, and the 1st of them has in impression been challenged by way of linguists like Dwight Bol inger. there's additionally a few facts that the measure of unanimity between linguists within reason low by way of much less transparent situations, even in reference to such particularly uncomplicated questions as grammaticality (acceptability). therefore we now have attempted to count extra on quotations from modern fiction, newspapers and magazines than on linguists' and philosophers' advert hoc examples. I additionally locate it unusual that a few of the similar linguists as think that all of us own innate principles approximately basic features of humanly attainable grammars suppose that we will be able to have entry to them merely through their specific consequences.
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Additional resources for Anaphora and Definite Descriptions: Two Applications of Game-Theoretical Semantics
Tenses can be interpreted through game rules that involve a choice of an earlier or a later moment of time. None of the extensions (i)-(iii) will playa major role in this book. However, certain other extensions will be attempted in the following. They include: (iv) The definite article, especially in its anaphoric uses. (v) Anaphoric pronouns. These will be discussed in Part II and Part III, respectively, of this work. Certain other extensions will also be introduced in the course of our book. They include the following: (vi) It is part of the spirit of semantical games that even proper names have to be "interpreted" (assigned a reference) in the course of a semantical game (see Part III, sec.
For instance, necessity marks Nature's move: Nature chooses an alternative world that faces the players at the next move, after the necessity operator has been dropped. Th i s motivates, e. , the following game rule: INTRODUCTION TO GAME-THEORETICAL SEMANTICS (G. necessarily) (51) 23 I f the game has reached the sentence Necessarily X and a world wI, then Nature chooses a modal alternative, say w2, to wI' The game is then continued with respect to X and w2' (ii) One of the intensional notions which can be dealt with in this way is knowing that.
The following game rule: INTRODUCTION TO GAME-THEORETICAL SEMANTICS (G. necessarily) (51) 23 I f the game has reached the sentence Necessarily X and a world wI, then Nature chooses a modal alternative, say w2, to wI' The game is then continued with respect to X and w2' (ii) One of the intensional notions which can be dealt with in this way is knowing that. The resulting game-theoretical treatment of epistemic logic can be extended to allow a treatment of the semantics of questions. Among the relevant game rules for knowing are the followin9 : (G.
Anaphora and Definite Descriptions: Two Applications of Game-Theoretical Semantics by Jaakko Hintikka